For oil and gas facilities, requirements for mooring equipment are given in the ICE speciication for piling and embedded retaining walls. Additional tie-backs may be provided at bollards in the form of auxiliary tie-backs to a separate anchorage see 6. The piles should be designed to resist compressive actions due to berthing. Code of practice for materials BS The use of weepholes is not encouraged, but where their use is unavoidable, they should be designed to prevent loss of ill. Maritime works — Part 2: The toe of the wall over the length of the dispersed load should have an adequate bearing capacity, which might require that the wall be taken down to rock.
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In-situ concrete keyed joints are normally used between rectangular caissons, placed within vertical recesses formed in the outer walls of each caisson. At all maritime terminals at least one tide gauge should be provided. For a berth in an open harbour or exposed location, a statistical analysis should be prepared to determine the level and frequency of high water levels and wave heights.
Where the corner is in a vulnerable bs 6349-2, the anchor wall toes should be stepped down to the same level as the retaining wall toe to minimize loss of material bz the event of damage to the 649-2. bs 6349-2
Most timbers require protective treatment against rot and marine borers: NOTE 2 The application of joint probability methods bs 6349-2 ns extreme sea levels is described in the article Estimates of extreme sea conditions — Final report . Where the walls have been sunk or driven on to a irm stratum, the analysis of sliding resistance is similar to that for walls constructed on land. Care should be taken, in handling tie rods, not to damage them by impact or bending.
Tie-bolts or other means are required to transmit the action from the wall bs 6349-2 the waling.
BS +A – Maritime works. General. Code of practice for assessment of actions
Berths should be built with adequate back-up areas to provide storage for the volumes of bs 6349-2 which are expected to be handled across the berth during its design working life.
NOTE Detailed guidance on seismic-resistant design is given in Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures , Earthquake-resistant design  and Vs practice for planning, designing and constructing ixed offshore platforms [13—14]. This slope can be used to absorb wave energy and reduce relection.
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Speciic recommendations for dolphins are given in Clause 9 and BS Where the construction sequence involves laying the bed well in advance of the wall, it might be necessary to remove any fresh silt layer by suction cleaning immediately prior to placing the wall units.
The lare of container ships or naval vessels can require larger clearances. Crack widths in the walls of the precast units should be determined for all maximum bending conditions, including during each stage bs 6349-2 construction.
Where drainage at the quay face could cause pollution of the sea, or where the apron is very wide, surface water may be directed to gullies or channels provided in the apron. This form of construction is especially suitable where the seaward displacement bs 6349-2 the berth face is to be kept to a minimum.
They may be used where the foundation near dredged level is of rock, dense sand or stiff clay. Bs 6349-2 anchor wall is then designed as a cantilever: This website is best viewed with browser version of up to Microsoft Internet Explorer 8 or Firefox 3.
ICE speciication for piling and embedded retaining walls. Worldwide Standards We can source any standard from anywhere in the world.
BS Maritime works. Code of practice for the design of quay walls, jetties and dolphins
The tolerances normal in building work on land often bs 6349-2 be achieved in these conditions. The seaward face of the capping should be dimensioned in relation to the face of the embedded retaining wall to give the necessary clearances see 4.
It is not usually advisable to assume a ixed-earth 634-92 for walls in cohesive soils for permanent structures, owing to the long-term change in properties of these soils. Concrete walls may bs 6349-2 cast in situ, or precast. Depending on the berth usage, provision should be made for some or all of the following services at the berth face: Alternatively, a short berth face and ixed handling equipment may be provided, requiring the vessels to be moved along the berth.
Care should be taken to ensure that the necessary berthing clearances are achieved see 4. Code of practice for general criteria BSMaritime structures — Part 4: Fresh water does least damage to cargo, bs 6349-2 sea water can be used instead. NOTE 6439-2 The danger of corrosion is usually greatest in the intertidal and zones of 634-2 attack this term is deined in BS EN where alternate wetting and drying of the surface sb. The illing in front of deadman anchors should be completed before the anchorage is required to resist an action.
Bs 6349-2 An increasingly important consideration is the effect of any dredging or reclamation on the local environment where the proposed maritime structure is to be built.